The article discusses the concepts of europeanness and of european identity. In analyzing these phenomena, it makes the case for adopting a social constructivist approach. It stresses the fact that for a long time, europeanness has remained a rather rare form of identification. Because of its hybrid and polysemic meanings, europe should not be too readily identified with the european union. Migration is a particularly insightful lens for the study of europeanness in its historical and contemporary dimensions, highlighting intercultural encounters that have played a crucial role in turning europe into a relevant point of reference.