What is the exact working mechanism of botulinum toxin A and sacral nerve stimulation in the treatment of overactive bladder/detrusor overactivity? ICI-RS 2017

Sachin Malde, Christopher Fry, Brigitte Schurch, Tom Marcelissen, Marcio Averbeck, Alex Digesu, Arun Sahai*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

AimsBotulinum toxin A (BTX-A) and sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) are established treatments for overactive bladder (OAB) and are standard of care in refractory cases in international guidelines. Despite long term use over decades their exact working mechanisms are not entirely clear. At the ICI-RS meeting in Bristol in 2017 a think tank was convened to address the question. MethodsThe think tank conducted a literature review and an expert consensus meeting focusing on current mechanisms and what could be learned from clinical experience and objective urodynamic data. ResultsBTX-A results suggests effects on both filling and voiding parts of the micturition cycle. The salient data in this regard is presented as well as additional studies related to the urothelium and evidence for central effects. Urodynamics have consistently shown increases in bladder capacity, compliance, and reductions in detrusor pressures during filling, however post void residuals also increase in a dose-dependent fashion. During SNS activation of somatic afferents inhibits bladder sensory pathways and reflex bladder hyperactivity. Evidence in cats suggest the inhibition of bladder activity occurs primarily in the CNS by inhibition of the ascending or descending pathways of the spinobulbospinal micturition reflex. Urodynamics have suggested improvement in bladder capacity and reduction in detrusor pressures during filling with little observed effects on voiding parameters. ConclusionsThe working mechanism of BTX-A and SNS is complex. The exact mechanisms are still unknown, although considerable progress has been made in our understanding. Further research proposals are suggested to help further elucidate these mechanisms.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S108-S116
Number of pages9
JournalNeurourology and Urodynamics
Volume37
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018

Keywords

  • botulinum toxin
  • Botox
  • detrusor overactivity
  • interstim
  • mechanism of action
  • onabotulinumtoxinA
  • overactive bladder
  • sacral nerve stimulation
  • sacral neuromodulation
  • urodynamics
  • LOWER URINARY-TRACT
  • NEUROGENIC DETRUSOR OVERACTIVITY
  • BLADDER UROTHELIAL CELLS
  • INHIBITS ATP RELEASE
  • SPINAL-CORD-INJURY
  • NEUROMODULATION
  • ONABOTULINUMTOXINA
  • INCONTINENCE
  • URGENCY
  • WOMEN

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