Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and their precursors alpha-dicarbonyls are implicated in the progression of diabetic retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to assess AGEs and a-dicarbonyls in the vitreous of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with early stages or absence of diabetic retinopathy.
We examined vitreous samples obtained during vitrectomy from 31 T2DM patients presenting themselves with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and compared these to 62 nondiabetic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment patients, matched on age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, smoking, intra-ocular lens implantation, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. AGEs (pentosidine, N-epsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine, N-epsilon-(carboxyethyl) lysine, and 5-hydro-5methylimidazolone) and a-dicarbonyls (3-deoxyglucosone, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal) were measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography or high performance liquid chromatography. Skin autofluorescence was measured by the AGE Reader.
Mean age was 64 +/- 7.6 years for T2DM patients and 63 +/- 8.1 years for controls. For T2DM patients, median diabetes duration was 2.2 (0.3-7.4) years. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy was present in 1 patient and classified as absent or background retinopathy in 30 patients. Vitreous levels of pentosidine (2.20 vs. 1.59 mu mol/mol lysine, p = 0.012) and 3-deoxyglucosone (809 vs. 615 nmol/L, p = 0.001) were significantly elevated in T2DM patients compared to controls. Other AGEs and a-dicarbonyls in the vitreous were not significantly different. There was a trend for increased skin autofluorescence in T2DM patients as compared to controls (p = 0.07).
Pentosidine and 3-deoxyglucosone concentrations were increased in the vitreous of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment patients with a relatively short duration of diabetes compared to non-diabetic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment patients.
- KIDNEY-DISEASE PATIENTS
- SKIN AUTOFLUORESCENCE
- PROLIFERATIVE VITREORETINOPATHY
- MAILLARD REACTION
- AQUEOUS FLARE
- HUMAN PLASMA