Vitamin B-6-Induced Neuropathy: Exploring the Mechanisms of Pyridoxine Toxicity

F. Hadtstein, M. Vrolijk*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal(Systematic) Review article peer-review

Abstract

Vitamin B-6 in the form of pyridoxine (PN) is commonly used by the general population. The use of PN-containing supplements has gained lots of attention over the past years as they have been related to the development of peripheral neuropathy. In light of this, the number of reported cases of adverse health effects due to the use of vitamin B-6 have increased. Despite a long history of study, the pathogenic mechanisms associated with PN toxicity remain elusive. Therefore, the present review is focused on investigating the mechanistic link between PN supplementation and sensory peripheral neuropathy. Excessive PN intake induces neuropathy through the preferential injury of sensory neurons. Recent reports on hereditary neuropathy due to pyridoxal kinase (PDXK) mutations may provide some insight into the mechanism, as genetic deficiencies in PDXK lead to the development of axonal sensory neuropathy. High circulating concentrations of PN may lead to a similar condition via the inhibition of PDXK. The mechanism behind PDXK-induced neuropathy is unknown; however, there is reason to believe that it may be related to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission. Compounds that inhibit PDXK lead to convulsions and reductions in GABA biosynthesis. The absence of central nervous system-related symptoms in PDXK deficiency could be due to differences in the regulation of PDXK, where PDXK activity is preserved in the brain but not in peripheral tissues. As PN is relatively impermeable to the blood-brain barrier, PDXK inhibition would similarly be confined to the peripheries and, as a result, GABA signaling may be perturbed within peripheral tissues, such as sensory neurons. Perturbed GABA signaling within sensory neurons may lead to excitotoxicity, neurodegeneration, and ultimately, the development of peripheral neuropathy. For several reasons, we conclude that PDXK inhibition and consequently disrupted GABA neurotransmission is the most plausible mechanism of toxicity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1911-1929
Number of pages19
JournalAdvances in Nutrition
Volume12
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2021

Keywords

  • vitamin B-6
  • pyridoxine
  • toxicity
  • pyridoxal kinase
  • GABA
  • neuropathy
  • DORSAL-ROOT GANGLIA
  • GLUTAMIC-ACID DECARBOXYLASE
  • KETO REDUCTASE SUPERFAMILY
  • SENSORY NEUROPATHY
  • IN-VIVO
  • 5'-PHOSPHATE OXIDASE
  • KINASE INHIBITION
  • MICE LACKING
  • SPINAL-CORD
  • DEFICIENCY

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