Synthesis and characterization of a series of novel microspheres featuring (i) radiopacity (i.e., clear fluoroscopic traceability) and (ii) an outer surface exposing aldehyde groups are reported. The aldehydes allowed us to tether proteins onto the particles' surface under mild conditions, under which the protein conformation and, hence, structural motifs for biorecognition are preserved. Essential monomer building blocks were (i) 4-iodobenzoyl-2-oxo-ethylmethacrylate (4-IEMA) for radiopacity and (ii) propenal for surface tethering of proteins. The particles demonstrated good X-ray visibility and cytocompatibility. Procedures to couple proteins onto the surface were optimized using fluorescent bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) or collagen (FITC-collagen). Furthermore, radiopaque microparticles with unlabeled bovine collagen type 1 were produced. The presence of immobilized collagen was verified with narrow-scan X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Fibroblasts readily adhere to and grow on the collagen-modified surfaces, whereas this was much less the case for the unmodified controls. The results led us to suggest that immobilized nondenatured collagen may transform filler particles from passive space-occupying objects to particles that cross-talk with surrounding tissues.