Vectorcardiography as a Tool for Easy Optimization of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Canine Left Bundle Branch Block Hearts

Caroline J. M. van Deursen*, Marc Strik, Leonard M. Rademakers, Arne van Hunnik, Marion Kuiper, Liliane Wecke, Harry J. G. M. Crijns, Kevin Vernooy, Frits W. Prinzen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

17 Citations (Web of Science)


Background-In cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), optimization of left ventricular (LV) stimulation timing is often time consuming. We hypothesized that the QRS vector in the vectorcardiogram (VCG) reflects electric interventricular dyssynchrony, and that the QRS vector amplitude (VA(QRS)), halfway between that during left bundle branch block (LBBB) and LV pacing, reflects optimal resynchronization, and can be used for easy optimization of CRT. Methods and Results-In 24 canine hearts with LBBB (12 acute, 6 with heart failure, and 6 with myocardial infarction), the LV was paced over a wide range of atrioventricular (AV) delays. Surface ECGs were recorded from the limb leads, and VA(QRS) was calculated in the frontal plane. Mechanical interventricular dyssynchrony (MIVD) was determined as the time delay between upslopes of LV and right ventricular pressure curves, and systolic function was assessed as LV dP/dt(max). VA(QRS) and MIVD were highly correlated (r=0.94). The VA(QRS) halfway between that during LV pacing with short AV delay and intrinsic LBBB activation accurately predicted the optimal AV delay for LV pacing (1 ms; 95% CI, -5 to 8ms). Increase in LV dP/dt(max) at the VCG predicted AV delay was only slightly lower than the highest observed Delta LV dP/dt(max) (-2.7%; 95% CI, -3.6 to -1.8%). Inability to reach the halfway value of VA(QRS) during simultaneous biventricular pacing (53% of cases) was associated with suboptimal hemodynamic response, which could be corrected by sequential pacing. Conclusions-The VA(QRS) reflects electric interventricular dyssynchrony and accurately predicts optimal timing of LV stimulation in canine LBBB hearts. Therefore, VCG may be useful as a reliable and easy tool for individual optimization of CRT. (Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012;5:544-552.)
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)544-552
JournalCirculation-Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2012


  • bundle branch block
  • cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • pacing
  • AV optimization
  • vectorcardiography

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