Variability of cost trajectories over the last year of life in patients with advanced breast cancer in the Netherlands

Paul P. Schneider*, Xavier G. L. V. Pouwels, Valeria Lima Passos, Bram L. T. Ramaekers, Sandra M. E. Geurts, Khava I. E. Ibragimova, Maaike de Boer, Frans Erdkamp, Birgit E. P. J. Vriens, Agnes J. van de Wouw, Marien O. den Boer, Manon J. Pepels, Vivianne C. G. Tjan-Heijnen, Manuela A. Joore

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objective In breast cancer patients, treatment at the end of life accounts for a major share of medical spending. However, little is known about the variability of cost trajectories between patients. This study aims to identify underlying latent groups of advanced breast cancer patients with similar cost trajectories over the last year before death. Methods Data from deceased advanced breast cancer patients, diagnosed between 2010 and 2017, were retrieved from the Southeast Netherlands Advanced Breast Cancer (SONABRE) Registry. Costs of hospital care over the last twelve months before death were analyzed, and the variability of longitudinal patterns between patients were explored using group-based trajectory modeling. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression were applied to investigate differences between the identified latent groups. Results We included 558 patients. Over the last twelve months before death, mean hospital costs were €2,255 (SD = €492) per month. Costs increased over the last five months and reached a maximum of €3,614 in the last month of life, driven by hospital admissions, while spending for medication declined over the last three months of life. Based on patients' individual cost trajectories, we identified six latent groups with distinct longitudinal patterns, of which only two showed a marked increase in costs over the last twelve months before death. Latent groups were constituted of heterogeneous patients, and clinical characteristics explained membership only to a limited extent. Conclusions The average costs of advanced breast cancer patients increased towards the end of life. However, we uncovered several latent groups of patients with divergent cost trajectories, which did not reflect the overall increasing trend. The mechanisms underlying the variability in cost trajectories warrants further research.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0230909
Number of pages14
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 9 Apr 2020




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