Validation of the Four-Dimensional Structure of Drinking Motives among Adults

Rik Crutzen*, Emmanuel Kuntsche

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: In the motivational model of alcohol use, there are two dimensions underlying the classification of drinking motives resulting in four drinking motive categories: enhancement, social, coping, and conformity motives. Methods: Using confirmatory factor analysis, the current study provides evidence on the best fitting factor structure in a large representative general population study among adults in the Netherlands (n = 2,440; two data waves separated by 3 months) using the DMQ-R (Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised). Results: The four-factor structure had the best fit at both time points in comparison with any other solution. Test-retest reliabilities indicate individual motive change in level over time, but not in terms of the four-factor structure. Conclusion: The results replicate and extend previous findings among adolescents, in line with the motivational model of alcohol use, and suggest the utility of using the DMQ-R in future studies on adults' drinking motives.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)222-226
JournalEuropean Addiction Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Drinking motives
  • Adults
  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Test-retest

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