Validation of the cocaine versions of the Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale and the Desires for Drug Questionnaire

M. Lievaart*, F. Erciyes, F.M. van der Veen, B.J.M. van de Wetering, P. Muris, I.H.A. Franken

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: The Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale (OCDUS) and the Desires for Drug Questionnaire (DDQ) are two frequently used drug craving questionnaires. Although both heroin and cocaine versions of the questionnaires exist, only the heroin versions have been psychometrically evaluated. The present study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric qualities of the cocaine versions of the OCDUS (OCDUS-C) and DDQ (DDQ-C). Methods: Cocaine-dependent inpatients (n = 101) completed both scales as well as a Visual Analogue Craving Scale (VACS), an alternative, one-item index for assessing momentary craving. We examined the reliability (internal consistency), construct validity (factor structure), and concurrent validity (correlations among both questionnaires, the VACS, and indicators of severity of dependence). A subsample also completed the OCDUS-C and DDQ-C for a second time, one week after the initial administration to obtain a preliminary investigation of the test-retest reliability. Results: In general, both questionnaires displayed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Further, the construct validity of both the DDQ and OCDUS was demonstrated by means of confirmatory factor analyses showing the expected three-factor models. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the OCDUS and DDQ for cocaine are both easy to administer and reliable instruments to assist the clinical practitioner or researcher to measure craving in cocaine dependent subjects. Moreover, the factor structure for the cocaine versions were similar to the heroin versions, indicating the OCDUS and the DDQ can be reliably used to measure craving for both substances, enabling a direct comparison between heroin and cocaine craving.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)358-365
JournalAmerican Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015

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