Using mass media and the Internet as tools to diagnose hepatitis C infections in the general population

F.R. Zuure, U. Davidovich, R.A. Coutinho, G.J. Kok, C.J.P.A. Hoebe, A. van den Hoek, P.L.M. Jansen, P. Leeuwen-Gilbert, N.C. Verheuvel, C.J. Weegink, M. Prins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Many individuals with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are undiagnosed.

Purpose: This study describes the development and the use and outcomes of a mass media campaign, combined with an Internet risk assessment and an Internet-mediated blood-testing procedure for HCV to identify individuals infected with HCV in the general population.

Methods: From April 2007 to December 2008, individuals in HCV risk groups were referred to an online, previously validated risk-assessment questionnaire at www.heptest.nl. Individuals at risk could download a referral letter for a free, anonymous HCV blood test in a nonclinical setting. Test results could be obtained online, 1 week later, using a personal log-in code. Anti-HCV-positive participants were requested to visit the Public Health Service for confirmation and RNA testing. Chronically HCV-infected individuals were referred for treatment. Data were analyzed in 2009-2010.

Results: The website attracted 40,902 visitors. Of the 9653 who completed the questionnaire, 2553 were at risk for HCV (26.4%). Main reported risk factors were a blood transfusion prior to 1992 and noninjecting drug use. Of the 1480 eligible for the blood test, 420 opted for testing (28%). HCV antibodies were detected in 3.6% (n = 15, 95% CI = 2.1%, 5.7%); of the 12 with a chronic HCV infection, six began treatment.

Conclusions: Internet-mediated risk-based testing for HCV has proved to be a feasible and effective strategy to identify undiagnosed HCV infection in the general population. All HCV-infected individuals belonged to hard-to-reach populations. Test uptake was 28%, which is high for an online project that includes blood testing. Because Internet-mediated testing is low-cost, this strategy holds promise for future screening. (Am J Prev Med 2011;40(3):345-352) (C) 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)345-352
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Preventive Medicine
Volume40
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011

Keywords

  • COST-EFFECTIVENESS
  • VIRUS-INFECTION
  • LOOKBACK PROGRAM
  • HCV INFECTION
  • UNITED-STATES
  • RISK-FACTORS
  • FUTURE
  • NETHERLANDS
  • HEMOPHILIA
  • PREVALENCE

Cite this

Zuure, F. R., Davidovich, U., Coutinho, R. A., Kok, G. J., Hoebe, C. J. P. A., van den Hoek, A., Jansen, P. L. M., Leeuwen-Gilbert, P., Verheuvel, N. C., Weegink, C. J., & Prins, M. (2011). Using mass media and the Internet as tools to diagnose hepatitis C infections in the general population. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 40(3), 345-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2010.11.019