Using clinical prediction models to personalise lifestyle interventions for cardiovascular disease prevention: A systematic literature review

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Abstract

This study aimed to systematically review the use of clinical prediction models (CPMs) in personalised lifestyle interventions for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. We searched PubMed and PsycInfo for articles describing relevant studies published up to August 1, 2021. These were supplemented with items retrieved via screening references of citations and cited by references. In total, 32 studies were included. Nineteen different CPMs were used to guide the intervention. Most frequently, a version of the Framingham risk score was used. The CPM was used to inform the intensity of the intervention in five studies (16 %), and the intervention's type in 31 studies (97 %). The CPM was supplemented with relative risk estimates for additional risk factors in three studies (9 %), and relative risk estimates for intervention effects in four (13 %). In addition to the estimated risk, the personalisation was determined using criteria based on univariable risk factors in 18 studies (56 %), a lifestyle score in three (9 %), and a physical examination index in one (3 %). We noted insufficient detail in reporting regarding the CPM's use in 20 studies (63 %). In 15 studies (47 %), the primary outcome was a CPM estimate. A statistically significant effect favouring the intervention to the comparator arm was reported in four out of eight analyses (50 %), and a statistically significant improvement compared to baseline in five out of seven analyses (71 %). Due to the design of the included studies, the effect of the use of CPMs is still unclear. Therefore, we see a need for future research.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101672
Number of pages17
JournalPreventive Medicine Reports
Volume25
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular diseases/prevention and control
  • Behavioral medicine
  • Decision support techniques
  • Models, cardiovascular
  • Patient-specific modeling
  • CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE
  • RISK-MANAGEMENT ANCHOR
  • PRIMARY-CARE
  • 10-YEAR RISK
  • FOLLOW-UP
  • GENERAL-PRACTICE
  • BLOOD-PRESSURE
  • HEALTH
  • TRIAL
  • COMMUNICATION

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