Using a typology to understand farmers’ intentions towards following a nutrient management plan

A. Daxini*, M. Ryan, C. O'Donoghue, A.P. Barnes, C. Buckley

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

17 Citations (Web of Science)


Optimising resource use efficiency is high on many national policy agendas. Inappropriate management in agricultural production can result in increased risk of nutrient loss to the environment. Best practice in nutrient management can help to mitigate this. However, policy initiatives aimed at encouraging farmers to follow a nutrient management plan (NMP) appear to be limited in their success. We employ a typology to classify farms/farmers based on a number of policy relevant farm and farmer characteristics. The theory of planned behaviour is applied to understand the variables which influence farmers' intentions to follow a NMP across the Republic of Ireland. The typology resulted in a total of three classes of farmers, namely 'traditional', 'supplementary income' and 'business-orientated'. The findings from the regression analysis reveal that attitude towards the outcomes of following a NMP is a weak predictor of intentions whereas subjective norm (social pressure) and perceived behavioural control (ease/difficulty) are strong predictors of intentions across the classes. Furthermore, contact with agricultural extension (a combination of one-to-one and group based extension) is found to be critical in determining the intentions of both traditional and supplementary income classes of farmers. The results also indicate that policy, which requires certain farmers in Ireland to develop a NMP on a mandatory basis, has consistent but mixed levels of influence on intentions. Initiatives designed to further encourage farmers to follow a NMP must account for the diversity that exists among the farming population and how different groups of farmers may respond to such initiatives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)280-290
Number of pages11
JournalResources Conservation and Recycling
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019

JEL classifications

  • o13 - "Economic Development: Agriculture; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Other Primary Products"


  • Farmer decision making
  • Intentions
  • Latent class analysis
  • Nutrient management plan
  • Theory of planned behaviour
  • Agricultural runoff
  • Agriculture
  • Behavioral research
  • Decision theory
  • Nutrients
  • Regression analysis
  • Agricultural productions
  • Nutrient management
  • Nutrient management plans
  • Perceived behavioural controls
  • Republic of Ireland
  • Decision making
  • agricultural extension
  • agricultural policy
  • agricultural production
  • decision making
  • farmers attitude
  • fertilizer application
  • nutrient enrichment
  • typology
  • agricultural land
  • agricultural worker
  • article
  • human
  • Ireland
  • latent class analysis
  • nutrient management
  • regression analysis
  • social problem
  • Theory of Planned Behavior
  • RISK

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