Upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1) in risk of type 2 diabetes: Association study in 2000 Dutch Caucasians
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Type 2 diabetes shares substantial genetic and phenotypic overlap with familial combined hyperlipidemia. Upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1), a well-established susceptibility gene for familial combined hyperlipidemia, is postulated to be such a shared genetic determinant. We evaluated two established variants in familial combined hyperlipidemia (rs2073658 and rs3737787) for association with type 2 diabetes in two Dutch case-control samples (N=2011). The first case-control sample comprised 501 subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Breda cohort and 920 healthy blood bank donors of Dutch Caucasian origin. The second case-control sample included 211 subjects with type 2 diabetes, and 379 normoglycemic controls. SNP rs2073658 and SNP rs3737787 were in perfect linkage disequilibrium. In the first case-control sample, prevalence of the major allele was higher in patients than in controls (75% versus 71%, OR=1.25, p=0.018). A similar effect-size and -direction was observed in the second case-control sample (76% versus 72%, OR=1.22, p=0.16). A combined analysis strengthened the evidence for association (OR=1.23, p=0.006). Notably, the increased risk for type 2 diabetes could be ascribed to the major allele, and its high frequency translated to a substantial population attributable risk of 14.5%. In conclusion, the major allele of rs2073658 in the USF1 gene is associated with a modestly increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes in Dutch Caucasians, with considerable impact at the population level. AD - University of Maastricht, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Department of Internal Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Laboratory for Metabolism and Vascular Medicine, P.O. Box 616, 6200MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.