Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Prospective Cohort Study

Andreas Vestergaard Jensen*, Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen, Gertrud Baunbk Egelund, Stine Bang Andersen, Pelle Trier Petersen, Thomas Benfield, Martin Witzenrath, Gernot Rohde, Pernille Ravn, German Community-Acquired

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background. Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for community-acquired pneumonia, whereas the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia is largely unknown. We aimed to determine the prevalence of prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, and risk factors associated with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in a large European community-acquired pneumonia cohort.

Methods. This was a multicenter prospective cohort study of hospitals and private practices in Germany and Austria encompassing 1961 adults with community-acquired pneumonia included in the German Community-Acquired Pneumonia Competence Network (CAPNETZ) study between 2007 and 2014. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and prediabetes was estimated based on hemoglobin A1c measurements. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for undiagnosed diabetes mellitus.

Results. Fifteen percent of patients had known diabetes mellitus. Among patients without known diabetes mellitus, 5.0% had undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and 37.5% had prediabetes. Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.45 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.35-4.45]), body mass index >= 25 kg/m(2) (OR, 2.64 [95% CI, 1.48-4.72]), and hyperglycemia at admission (6-11 mM: OR, 2.93 [95% CI, 1.54-5.60] and >= 11 mM: OR, 44.76 [95% CI, 17.58-113.98]) were associated with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Patients with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus had a higher 180-day mortality rate compared to patients without diabetes mellitus (12.1% vs 3.8%, respectively; P = .001).

Conclusions. Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus was prevalent among community-acquired pneumonia. Male sex, overweight, and hyperglycemia at admission were associated with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. The long-term mortality among patients with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus was high compared to patients without diabetes mellitus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2091-2098
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2017


  • community-acquired pneumonia
  • undiagnosed diabetes mellitus
  • risk factors
  • mortality

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