Transient induction of E-selectin expression following TNF alpha-based isolated limb perfusion in melanoma and sarcoma patients is not tumor specific.

P.T.G.A. Nooijen, A.M. Eggermont, M.M. Verbeek, L. Schalkwijk, W.A. Buurman, R.M.W. de Waal, D.J. Ruiter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Transient induction of E-selectin expression following TNF alpha-based isolated limb perfusion in melanoma and sarcoma patients is not tumor specific.

Nooijen PT, Eggermont AM, Verbeek MM, Schalkwijk L, Buurman WA, de Waal RM, Ruiter DJ.

Department of Pathology, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Endothelial injury of the tumor microvasculature after isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with TNF-alpha and melphalan is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of tumor necrosis. It is thought to follow endothelial cell activation and subsequent attraction of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). The observed selectivity for the tumor could be due to preferential overexpression of cell-adhesion molecules by the tumor vasculature. We tested this proposition by analyzing sequential biopsies from both tumor and normal distant skin, taken from melanoma and sarcoma patients before ILP and at 30 min and 24 h after ILP. Histopathologically confirmed complete response was observed in six of seven melanoma patients, 1-8 months after ILP. By using immunohistochemistry on the light- and electron-microscopic level, the expression patterns of intercellular adhesion molecules-1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin (ELAM-1), VCAM-1, and PECAM-l were examined. In addition, the results were compared with the effects on HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) in vitro of transient exposure of the agents used during ILP. ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 were constitutively expressed on vascular endothelial cells, both in normal tissues and in the tumor lesions. In biopsies taken 30 min after termination of the perfusion, a moderate induction of E-selectin expression on the vascular endothelium in the tumors and a marked expression on the vasculature in the perfused normal skin were observed. It decreased within 24 h after perfusion in both normal skin and in the tumor. The upregulation of E-selectin was accompanied neither by an influx of neutrophils nor by hemorrhagic necrosis. There were no drastic changes in the expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, or PECAM- 1. These findings imply that the upregulation of E-selectin after ILP is not restrfcted to the tumor microvasculature and that, therefore, these microvascular events seem not to be the decisive pathomechanism responsible for tumor regression.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-44
JournalJournal of Immunotherapy
Volume19
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1996

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