Training in the practice of noninvasive brain stimulation: Recommendations from an IFCN committee

Peter J. Fried, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Andrea Antal, David Bartres-Faz, Sven Bestmann, Linda L. Carpenter, Pablo Celnik, Dylan Edwards, Faranak Farzan, Shirley Fecteau, Mark S. George, Bin He, Yun-Hee Kim, Letizia Leocani, Sarah H. Lisanby, Colleen Loo, Bruce Luber, Michael A. Nitsche, Walter Paulus, Simone RossiPaolo M. Rossini, John Rothwell, Alexander T. Sack, Gregor Thut, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Ulf Ziemann, Mark Hallett, Alvaro Pascual-Leone*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal(Systematic) Review article peer-review

9 Citations (Web of Science)


As the field of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) expands, there is a growing need for comprehensive guidelines on training practitioners in the safe and effective administration of NIBS techniques in their various research and clinical applications. This article provides recommendations on the structure and content of this training. Three different types of practitioners are considered (Technicians, Clinicians, and Scientists), to attempt to cover the range of education and responsibilities of practitioners in NIBS from the laboratory to the clinic. Basic or core competencies and more advanced knowledge and skills are discussed, and recommendations offered regarding didactic and practical curricular components. We encourage individual licensing and governing bodies to implement these guidelines. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)819-837
Number of pages19
JournalClinical Neurophysiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • Training
  • Guidelines
  • Noninvasive brain stimulation
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • Transcranial electric stimulation

Cite this