Training for laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with a newly designed model: a replacement for animal tissue models?

S.M. Botden*, L. Christie, R. Goossens, J.J. Jakimowicz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


BACKGROUND: To bridge the early learning curve for laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication from the clinical setting to a safe environment, training models can be used. This study aimed to develop a reusable, low-cost model to be used for training in laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication procedure as an alternative to the use of animal tissue models. METHODS: From artificial organs and tissue, an anatomic model of the human upper abdomen was developed for training in performing laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. The 20 participants and tutors in the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES) upper gastrointestinal surgery course completed four complementary tasks of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with the artificial model, then compared the realism, haptic feedback, and training properties of the model with those of animal tissue models. RESULTS: The main difference between the two training models was seen in the properties of the stomach. The wrapping of the stomach in the artificial model was rated significantly lower than that in the animal tissue model (mean, 3.6 vs. 4.2; p = 0.010). The main criticism of the stomach of the artificial model was that it was too rigid for making a proper wrap. The suturing of the stomach wall, however, was regarded as fairly realistic (mean, 3.6). The crura on the artificial model were rated better (mean, 4.3) than those on the animal tissue (mean, 4.0), although the difference was not significant. The participants regarded the model as a good to excellent (mean, 4.3) training tool. CONCLUSION: The newly developed model is regarded as a good tool for training in laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication procedure. It is cheaper, more durable, and more readily available for training and can therefore be used in every training center. The stomach of this model, however, still needs improvement because it is too rigid for making the wrap.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3134-3140
Number of pages7
JournalSurgical endoscopy and other interventional techniques
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2010


  • Animal tissue model
  • Artificial model
  • Laparoscopic training
  • Procedural training


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