Towards remote monitoring in pediatric care and clinical trials-Tolerability, repeatability and reference values of candidate digital endpoints derived from physical activity, heart rate and sleep in healthy children

M.D. Kruizinga*, N. van der Heide, A. Moll, A. Zhuparris, Y. Yavuz, M.L. de Kam, F.E. Stuurman, A.F. Cohen, G.J.A. Driessen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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BackgroundDigital devices and wearables allow for the measurement of a wide range of health-related parameters in a non-invasive manner, which may be particularly valuable in pediatrics. Incorporation of such parameters in clinical trials or care as digital endpoint could reduce the burden for children and their parents but requires clinical validation in the target population. This study aims to determine the tolerability, repeatability, and reference values of novel digital endpoints in healthy children.MethodsApparently healthy children (n = 175, 46% male) aged 2-16 were included. Subjects were monitored for 21 days using a home-monitoring platform with several devices (smartwatch, spirometer, thermometer, blood pressure monitor, scales). Endpoints were analyzed with a mixed effects model, assessing variables that explained within- and between-subject variability. Endpoints based on physical activity, heart rate, and sleep-related parameters were included in the analysis. For physical-activity-related endpoints, a sample size needed to detect a 15% increase was calculated.FindingsMedian compliance was 94%. Variability in each physical activity-related candidate endpoint was explained by age, sex, watch wear time, rain duration per day, average ambient temperature, and population density of the city of residence. Estimated sample sizes for candidate endpoints ranged from 33-110 per group. Daytime heart rate, nocturnal heart rate and sleep duration decreased as a function of age and were comparable to reference values published in the literature.ConclusionsWearable- and portable devices are tolerable for pediatric subjects. The raw data, models and reference values presented here can be used to guide further validation and, in the future, clinical trial designs involving the included measures.
Original languageEnglish
Article number0244877
Number of pages17
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jan 2021


  • age
  • electrocardiogram

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