Towards high-performance materials based on carbohydrate-derived polyamide blends

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

A bio-derived monomer called 2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-galactarate acid/ester (GalXMe) has great potential in polymer production. The unique properties of this molecule, such as its rigidity and bulkiness, contribute to the good thermal properties and appealing transparency of the material. The main problem, however, is that like other biobased materials, the polymers derived thereof are very brittle. In this study, we report on the melt blending of GalXMe polyamides (PAs) with different commercial PA grades using extrusion as well as blend characterization. Biobased PA blends showed limited to no miscibility with other polyamides. However, their incorporation resulted in strong materials with high Young moduli. The increase in modulus of the prepared GalXMe blends with commercial PAs ranged from up to 75% for blends with aliphatic polyamide composed of 1,6-diaminohexane and 1,12-dodecanedioic acid PA(6,12) to up to 82% for blends with cycloaliphatic polyamide composed of 4,4 '-methylenebis(cyclohexylamine) and 1,12-dodecanedioic acid PA(PACM,12). Investigation into the mechanism of blending revealed that for some polyamides a transamidation reaction improved the blend compatibility. The thermal stability of the biobased PAs depended on which diamine was used. Polymers with aliphatic/aromatic or alicyclic diamines showed no degradation, whereas with fully aromatic diamines such as p-phenylenediamine, some degradation processes were observed under extrusion conditions (260/270 degrees C).

Original languageEnglish
Article number413
JournalPolymers
Volume11
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Mar 2019

Keywords

  • biobased polyamides
  • blending
  • high T-g
  • mechanical properties
  • SOLID-STATE MODIFICATION
  • AROMATIC COPOLYESTERS
  • GALACTARIC ACID
  • POLYMER BLENDS
  • POLYESTERS
  • COMPATIBILIZATION
  • TEREPHTHALATE)
  • STRATEGIES
  • MORPHOLOGY
  • GREEN

Cite this

@article{729f35df846048a487dee683ecfde11d,
title = "Towards high-performance materials based on carbohydrate-derived polyamide blends",
abstract = "A bio-derived monomer called 2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-galactarate acid/ester (GalXMe) has great potential in polymer production. The unique properties of this molecule, such as its rigidity and bulkiness, contribute to the good thermal properties and appealing transparency of the material. The main problem, however, is that like other biobased materials, the polymers derived thereof are very brittle. In this study, we report on the melt blending of GalXMe polyamides (PAs) with different commercial PA grades using extrusion as well as blend characterization. Biobased PA blends showed limited to no miscibility with other polyamides. However, their incorporation resulted in strong materials with high Young moduli. The increase in modulus of the prepared GalXMe blends with commercial PAs ranged from up to 75{\%} for blends with aliphatic polyamide composed of 1,6-diaminohexane and 1,12-dodecanedioic acid PA(6,12) to up to 82{\%} for blends with cycloaliphatic polyamide composed of 4,4 '-methylenebis(cyclohexylamine) and 1,12-dodecanedioic acid PA(PACM,12). Investigation into the mechanism of blending revealed that for some polyamides a transamidation reaction improved the blend compatibility. The thermal stability of the biobased PAs depended on which diamine was used. Polymers with aliphatic/aromatic or alicyclic diamines showed no degradation, whereas with fully aromatic diamines such as p-phenylenediamine, some degradation processes were observed under extrusion conditions (260/270 degrees C).",
keywords = "biobased polyamides, blending, high T-g, mechanical properties, SOLID-STATE MODIFICATION, AROMATIC COPOLYESTERS, GALACTARIC ACID, POLYMER BLENDS, POLYESTERS, COMPATIBILIZATION, TEREPHTHALATE), STRATEGIES, MORPHOLOGY, GREEN",
author = "Ola Wr{\'o}blewska and Nils Leon{\'e} and {de Wildeman}, Stefaan and Katrien Bernaerts",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
day = "4",
doi = "10.3390/polym11030413",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
journal = "Polymers",
issn = "2073-4360",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "3",

}

Towards high-performance materials based on carbohydrate-derived polyamide blends. / Wróblewska, Ola; Leoné, Nils; de Wildeman, Stefaan; Bernaerts, Katrien.

In: Polymers, Vol. 11, No. 3, 413, 04.03.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Towards high-performance materials based on carbohydrate-derived polyamide blends

AU - Wróblewska, Ola

AU - Leoné, Nils

AU - de Wildeman, Stefaan

AU - Bernaerts, Katrien

PY - 2019/3/4

Y1 - 2019/3/4

N2 - A bio-derived monomer called 2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-galactarate acid/ester (GalXMe) has great potential in polymer production. The unique properties of this molecule, such as its rigidity and bulkiness, contribute to the good thermal properties and appealing transparency of the material. The main problem, however, is that like other biobased materials, the polymers derived thereof are very brittle. In this study, we report on the melt blending of GalXMe polyamides (PAs) with different commercial PA grades using extrusion as well as blend characterization. Biobased PA blends showed limited to no miscibility with other polyamides. However, their incorporation resulted in strong materials with high Young moduli. The increase in modulus of the prepared GalXMe blends with commercial PAs ranged from up to 75% for blends with aliphatic polyamide composed of 1,6-diaminohexane and 1,12-dodecanedioic acid PA(6,12) to up to 82% for blends with cycloaliphatic polyamide composed of 4,4 '-methylenebis(cyclohexylamine) and 1,12-dodecanedioic acid PA(PACM,12). Investigation into the mechanism of blending revealed that for some polyamides a transamidation reaction improved the blend compatibility. The thermal stability of the biobased PAs depended on which diamine was used. Polymers with aliphatic/aromatic or alicyclic diamines showed no degradation, whereas with fully aromatic diamines such as p-phenylenediamine, some degradation processes were observed under extrusion conditions (260/270 degrees C).

AB - A bio-derived monomer called 2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-galactarate acid/ester (GalXMe) has great potential in polymer production. The unique properties of this molecule, such as its rigidity and bulkiness, contribute to the good thermal properties and appealing transparency of the material. The main problem, however, is that like other biobased materials, the polymers derived thereof are very brittle. In this study, we report on the melt blending of GalXMe polyamides (PAs) with different commercial PA grades using extrusion as well as blend characterization. Biobased PA blends showed limited to no miscibility with other polyamides. However, their incorporation resulted in strong materials with high Young moduli. The increase in modulus of the prepared GalXMe blends with commercial PAs ranged from up to 75% for blends with aliphatic polyamide composed of 1,6-diaminohexane and 1,12-dodecanedioic acid PA(6,12) to up to 82% for blends with cycloaliphatic polyamide composed of 4,4 '-methylenebis(cyclohexylamine) and 1,12-dodecanedioic acid PA(PACM,12). Investigation into the mechanism of blending revealed that for some polyamides a transamidation reaction improved the blend compatibility. The thermal stability of the biobased PAs depended on which diamine was used. Polymers with aliphatic/aromatic or alicyclic diamines showed no degradation, whereas with fully aromatic diamines such as p-phenylenediamine, some degradation processes were observed under extrusion conditions (260/270 degrees C).

KW - biobased polyamides

KW - blending

KW - high T-g

KW - mechanical properties

KW - SOLID-STATE MODIFICATION

KW - AROMATIC COPOLYESTERS

KW - GALACTARIC ACID

KW - POLYMER BLENDS

KW - POLYESTERS

KW - COMPATIBILIZATION

KW - TEREPHTHALATE)

KW - STRATEGIES

KW - MORPHOLOGY

KW - GREEN

U2 - 10.3390/polym11030413

DO - 10.3390/polym11030413

M3 - Article

VL - 11

JO - Polymers

JF - Polymers

SN - 2073-4360

IS - 3

M1 - 413

ER -