Three-Dimensional Imaging of the Chest Wall: A Comparison Between Three Different Imaging Systems

J.H.T. Daemen, T.G.J. Loonen, A.C. Verhulst, T.J.J. Maal, J.G. Maessen, Y.L.J. Vissers, K.W.E. Hulsewe, E.R. de Loos*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: Three-dimensional (3D) imaging is being used progressively to create models of patients with anterior chest wall deformities. Resulting models are used for clinical decision-making, surgical planning, and analysis. However, given the broad range of 3D imaging systems available and the fact that planning and analysis techniques are often only validated for a single system, it is important to analyze potential intrasystem and intersystem differences. The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of three commercially available 3D imaging systems that are used to obtain images of the anterior chest wall.Methods: Among 15 healthy volunteers, 3D images of the anterior chest wall were acquired twice per imaging device. Reproducibility was determined by comparison of consecutive images acquired per device while the true accuracy was calculated by comparison of 3D image derived and calipered anthropometric measurements. A maximum difference of 1.00 mm. was considered clinically acceptable.Results: All devices demonstrated statistically comparable (P = 0.21) reproducibility with a mean absolute difference of 0.59 mm. (SD: 1.05), 0.54 mm. (SD: 2.08), and 0.48 mm. (SD: 0.60) for the 3dMD, EinScan Pro 2X Plus, and Artec Leo, respectively. The true accuracy was, respectively, 0.89 mm. (SD: 0.66), 1.27 mm. (SD: 0.94), and 0.81 mm. (SD: 0.71) for the 3dMD, EinScan, and Artec device and did not statistically differ (P = 0.085).Conclusions: Three-dimensional imaging of the anterior chest wall utilizing the 3dMD and Artec Leo is feasible with comparable reproducibility and accuracy, whereas the EinScan Pro 2X Plus is reproducible but not clinically accurate. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)332-341
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2021


  • accuracy
  • anterior chest wall deformity
  • reproducibility
  • three-dimensional imaging
  • Accuracy
  • Reproducibility
  • Anterior chest wall deformity
  • Three-dimensional imaging


Dive into the research topics of 'Three-Dimensional Imaging of the Chest Wall: A Comparison Between Three Different Imaging Systems'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this