AIMS: Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound produced by various plants (e.g. red grapes) and found in red wine, has glucose-lowering effects in humans and rodent models of obesity and/or diabetes. The mechanisms behind these effects have been suggested to include resveratrol-induced secretion of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1. We investigated postprandial incretin hormone and glucagon responses in obese human subjects before and after 30 days of resveratrol supplementation. METHODS: Postprandial plasma responses of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon were evaluated in 10 obese men [subjects characteristics (mean +/- standard error of the mean): age 52 +/- 2 years; BMI 32 +/- 1 kg/m2 , fasting plasma glucose 5.5 +/- 0.1 mmol/l] who had been given a dietary supplement of resveratrol (Resvida(R) 150 mg/day) or placebo for 30 days in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design with a 4-week washout period. At the end of each intervention period a standardized meal test (without co-administration of resveratrol) was performed. RESULTS: Resveratrol supplementation had no impact on fasting plasma concentrations or postprandial plasma responses (area under curve values) of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (11.2 +/- 2.1 vs. 11.8 +/- 2.2 pmol/l, P = 0.87; 17.0 +/- 2.2 vs. 14.8 +/- 1.6 min x nmol/l, P = 0.20) or glucagon-like peptide-1 (15.4 +/- 1.0 vs. 15.2 +/- 0.9 pmol/l, P = 0.84; 5.6 +/- 0.4 vs. 5.7 +/- 0.3 min x nmol/l, P = 0.73). Resveratrol supplementation significantly suppressed postprandial glucagon responses (4.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.4 min x nmol/l, P = 0.01) without affecting fasting glucagon levels (15.2 +/- 2.2 vs. 14.5 +/- 1.5 pmol/l, P = 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that 30 days of resveratrol supplementation does not affect fasting or postprandial incretin hormone plasma levels in obese humans, but suppresses postprandial glucagon responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.