There Are No Nonresponders to Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Older Men and Women

T.A. Churchward-Venne, M. Tieland, L.B. Verdijk, M. Leenders, M.L. Dirks, L.C. de Groot, L.J. van Loon

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the proposed prevalence of unresponsiveness of older men and women to augment lean body mass, muscle fiber size, muscle strength, and/or physical function following prolonged resistance-type exercise training. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective analysis of the adaptive response to 12 (n = 110) and 24 (n = 85) weeks of supervised resistance-type exercise training in older (>65 years) men and women. MEASUREMENTS: Lean body mass (DXA), type I and type II muscle fiber size (biopsy), leg strength (1-RM on leg press and leg extension), and physical function (chair-rise time) were assessed at baseline, and after 12 and 24 weeks of resistance-type exercise training. RESULTS: Lean body mass increased by 0.9 +/- 0.1 kg (range: -3.3 to +5.4 kg; P < .001) from 0 to 12 weeks of training. From 0 to 24 weeks, lean body mass increased by 1.1 +/- 0.2 kg (range: -1.8 to +9.2 kg; P < .001). Type I and II muscle fiber size increased by 324 +/- 137 mum(2) (range: -4458 to +3386 mum(2); P = .021), and 701 +/- 137 mum(2) (range: -4041 to +3904 mum(2); P < .001) from 0 to 12 weeks. From 0 to 24 weeks, type I and II muscle fiber size increased by 360 +/- 157 mum(2) (range: -3531 to +3426 mum(2); P = .026) and 779 +/- 161 mum(2) (range: -2728 to +3815 mum(2); P < .001). The 1-RM strength on the leg press and leg extension increased by 33 +/- 2 kg (range: -36 to +87 kg; P < .001) and 20 +/- 1 kg (range: -22 to +56 kg; P < .001) from 0 to 12 weeks. From 0 to 24 weeks, leg press and leg extension 1-RM increased by 50 +/- 3 kg (range: -28 to +145 kg; P < .001) and 29 +/- 2 kg (range: -19 to +60 kg; P < .001). Chair-rise time decreased by 1.3 +/- 0.4 seconds (range: +21.6 to -12.5 seconds; P = .003) from 0 to 12 weeks. From 0 to 24 weeks, chair-rise time decreased by 2.3 +/- 0.4 seconds (range: +10.5 to -23.0 seconds; P < .001). Nonresponsiveness was not apparent in any subject, as a positive adaptive response on at least one training outcome was apparent in every subject. CONCLUSIONS: A large heterogeneity was apparent in the adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training when changes in lean body mass, muscle fiber size, strength, and physical function were assessed in older men and women. The level of responsiveness was strongly affected by the duration of the exercise intervention, with more positive responses following more prolonged exercise training. We conclude that there are no nonresponders to the benefits of resistance-type exercise training on lean body mass, fiber size, strength, or function in the older population. Consequently, resistance-type exercise should be promoted without restriction to support healthy aging in the older population.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)400-411
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American Medical Directors Association
Volume16
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2015

Keywords

  • Resistance exercise
  • sarcopenia
  • lean body mass
  • muscle strength
  • muscle function
  • aging
  • FIBER CONTRACTILE FUNCTION
  • PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION
  • MYOFIBER HYPERTROPHY
  • PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY
  • CLUSTER-ANALYSIS
  • ELDERLY-PEOPLE
  • MUSCLE SIZE
  • SARCOPENIA
  • STRENGTH
  • HUMANS

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