The Virgo O3 run and the impact of the environment

F. Acernese*, M. Agathos, A. Ain, S. Albanesi, A. Allocca, A. Amato, T. Andrade, N. Andres, M. Andres-Carcasona, T. Andric, S. Ansoldi, S. Antier, T. Apostolatos, E.Z. Appavuravther, M. Arene, N. Arnaud, M. Assiduo, S.A.D. Melo, P. Astone, F. AubinT. Avgitas, S. Babak, F. Badaracco, M.K.M. Bader, S. Bagnasco, J. Baird, T. Baka, G. Ballardin, G. Baltus, B. Banerjee, C. Barbieri, P. Barneo, F. Barone, M. Barsuglia, D. Barta, A. Basti, M. Bawaj, M. Bazzan, F. Beirnaert, M. Bejger, I. Belahcene, V. Benedetto, M. Berbel, S. Bernuzzi, D. Bersanetti, A. Bertolini, U. Bhardwaj, A. Bianchi, S. Bini, M. Bischi, S. Danilishin, S. Hild, G. Koekoek, A. Singha, V. Spagnuolo, J. Steinlechner, S. Steinlechner, A. Utina, J.F.J. van den Brand

*Corresponding author for this work

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Sources of geophysical noise (such as wind, sea waves and earthquakes) or of anthropogenic noise impact ground-based gravitational-wave interferometric detectors, causing transient sensitivity worsening and gaps in data taking. During the one year-long third observing run (O3: from April 01, 2019 to March 27, 2020), the Virgo Collaboration collected a statistically significant dataset, used in this article to study the response of the detector to a variety of environmental conditions. We correlated environmental parameters to global detector performance, such as observation range, duty cycle and control losses. Where possible, we identified weaknesses in the detector that will be used to elaborate strategies in order to improve Virgo robustness against external disturbances for the next data taking period, O4, currently planned to start at the end of 2022. The lessons learned could also provide useful insights for the design of the next generation of ground-based interferometers.
Original languageEnglish
Article number235009
Number of pages40
JournalClassical and Quantum Gravity
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022


  • Advanced Virgo detector
  • gravitational waves
  • interferometer
  • observing run 3
  • environmental monitoring
  • environment impact
  • sensitivity and duty cycle


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