The value of an implicit self-associative measure specific to core beliefs of depression

L.H.J.M. Lemmens, A. Roefs, A. Arntz, H.C. van Teeseling, F.P.M.L. Peeters, M.J.H. Huibers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present study examined differences in explicit and implicit measures of self-esteem between depressed patients and healthy controls using an indirect measurement procedure especially adapted to measure self-esteem aspects of core beliefs of depression. Furthermore, we examined whether our implicit and explicit self-associative measures were associated with each other and with depressive symptoms, and investigated the effect of a discrepancy between the implicit and explicit measure on depression. METHODS: Participants were 87 depressed patients and 30 healthy controls. The Self-Liking and Self-Competence Scale was administered as a measure of explicit self-esteem. A depression-specific variant of the Single Category Implicit Association Test served as a measure of implicit self-esteem. RESULTS: Patients showed significantly lower levels of explicit self-esteem as compared to healthy controls. In spite of our adaptations, no differences were found on the implicit measure. The implicit measure of self-esteem was neither related to the explicit measure nor to depressive symptoms. Furthermore, although both the explicit measure of self-esteem and the difference score of the explicit and implicit measure were related to symptoms of depression, the relation between the explicit measure and depression was found to be significantly stronger. LIMITATIONS: Results should be interpreted with caution because it is not clear yet to what extent these implicit measures really reflect self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that only the explicit measure of self-esteem - and not the implicit - is related to depression. Future research using well-designed measurement procedures for obtaining implicit and explicit measures could contribute to a better insight in the nature of these constructs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)196-202
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Volume45
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014

Keywords

  • Implicit measure of self-esteem
  • Sc-IAT
  • Explicit measure of self-esteem
  • Depression
  • Psychotherapy
  • COGNITIVE VULNERABILITY
  • ESTEEM
  • EXPLICIT
  • DELUSIONS

Cite this

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title = "The value of an implicit self-associative measure specific to core beliefs of depression",
abstract = "BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present study examined differences in explicit and implicit measures of self-esteem between depressed patients and healthy controls using an indirect measurement procedure especially adapted to measure self-esteem aspects of core beliefs of depression. Furthermore, we examined whether our implicit and explicit self-associative measures were associated with each other and with depressive symptoms, and investigated the effect of a discrepancy between the implicit and explicit measure on depression. METHODS: Participants were 87 depressed patients and 30 healthy controls. The Self-Liking and Self-Competence Scale was administered as a measure of explicit self-esteem. A depression-specific variant of the Single Category Implicit Association Test served as a measure of implicit self-esteem. RESULTS: Patients showed significantly lower levels of explicit self-esteem as compared to healthy controls. In spite of our adaptations, no differences were found on the implicit measure. The implicit measure of self-esteem was neither related to the explicit measure nor to depressive symptoms. Furthermore, although both the explicit measure of self-esteem and the difference score of the explicit and implicit measure were related to symptoms of depression, the relation between the explicit measure and depression was found to be significantly stronger. LIMITATIONS: Results should be interpreted with caution because it is not clear yet to what extent these implicit measures really reflect self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that only the explicit measure of self-esteem - and not the implicit - is related to depression. Future research using well-designed measurement procedures for obtaining implicit and explicit measures could contribute to a better insight in the nature of these constructs.",
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author = "L.H.J.M. Lemmens and A. Roefs and A. Arntz and {van Teeseling}, H.C. and F.P.M.L. Peeters and M.J.H. Huibers",
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The value of an implicit self-associative measure specific to core beliefs of depression. / Lemmens, L.H.J.M.; Roefs, A.; Arntz, A.; van Teeseling, H.C.; Peeters, F.P.M.L.; Huibers, M.J.H.

In: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Vol. 45, No. 1, 03.2014, p. 196-202.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - The value of an implicit self-associative measure specific to core beliefs of depression

AU - Lemmens, L.H.J.M.

AU - Roefs, A.

AU - Arntz, A.

AU - van Teeseling, H.C.

AU - Peeters, F.P.M.L.

AU - Huibers, M.J.H.

PY - 2014/3

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N2 - BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present study examined differences in explicit and implicit measures of self-esteem between depressed patients and healthy controls using an indirect measurement procedure especially adapted to measure self-esteem aspects of core beliefs of depression. Furthermore, we examined whether our implicit and explicit self-associative measures were associated with each other and with depressive symptoms, and investigated the effect of a discrepancy between the implicit and explicit measure on depression. METHODS: Participants were 87 depressed patients and 30 healthy controls. The Self-Liking and Self-Competence Scale was administered as a measure of explicit self-esteem. A depression-specific variant of the Single Category Implicit Association Test served as a measure of implicit self-esteem. RESULTS: Patients showed significantly lower levels of explicit self-esteem as compared to healthy controls. In spite of our adaptations, no differences were found on the implicit measure. The implicit measure of self-esteem was neither related to the explicit measure nor to depressive symptoms. Furthermore, although both the explicit measure of self-esteem and the difference score of the explicit and implicit measure were related to symptoms of depression, the relation between the explicit measure and depression was found to be significantly stronger. LIMITATIONS: Results should be interpreted with caution because it is not clear yet to what extent these implicit measures really reflect self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that only the explicit measure of self-esteem - and not the implicit - is related to depression. Future research using well-designed measurement procedures for obtaining implicit and explicit measures could contribute to a better insight in the nature of these constructs.

AB - BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present study examined differences in explicit and implicit measures of self-esteem between depressed patients and healthy controls using an indirect measurement procedure especially adapted to measure self-esteem aspects of core beliefs of depression. Furthermore, we examined whether our implicit and explicit self-associative measures were associated with each other and with depressive symptoms, and investigated the effect of a discrepancy between the implicit and explicit measure on depression. METHODS: Participants were 87 depressed patients and 30 healthy controls. The Self-Liking and Self-Competence Scale was administered as a measure of explicit self-esteem. A depression-specific variant of the Single Category Implicit Association Test served as a measure of implicit self-esteem. RESULTS: Patients showed significantly lower levels of explicit self-esteem as compared to healthy controls. In spite of our adaptations, no differences were found on the implicit measure. The implicit measure of self-esteem was neither related to the explicit measure nor to depressive symptoms. Furthermore, although both the explicit measure of self-esteem and the difference score of the explicit and implicit measure were related to symptoms of depression, the relation between the explicit measure and depression was found to be significantly stronger. LIMITATIONS: Results should be interpreted with caution because it is not clear yet to what extent these implicit measures really reflect self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that only the explicit measure of self-esteem - and not the implicit - is related to depression. Future research using well-designed measurement procedures for obtaining implicit and explicit measures could contribute to a better insight in the nature of these constructs.

KW - Implicit measure of self-esteem

KW - Sc-IAT

KW - Explicit measure of self-esteem

KW - Depression

KW - Psychotherapy

KW - COGNITIVE VULNERABILITY

KW - ESTEEM

KW - EXPLICIT

KW - DELUSIONS

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DO - 10.1016/j.jbtep.2013.10.006

M3 - Article

VL - 45

SP - 196

EP - 202

JO - Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

JF - Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

SN - 0005-7916

IS - 1

ER -