The risks of sarcopenia, falls and fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

C. Sarodnik, S. P. G. Bours, N. C. Schaper, J. P. van den Bergh, T. A. C. M. van Geel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

29 Citations (Web of Science)
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Abstract

Fracture risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increased, and the mechanism is multifactorial. Recent research on T2DM-induced bone fragility shows that bone mineral density (BMD) is often normal or even slightly elevated. However, bone turnover may be decreased and bone material and microstructural properties are altered, especially when microvascular complications are present. Besides bone fragility, extra-skeletal factors leading to an increased propensity to experience falls may also contribute to the increased fracture risk in T2DM, such as peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy and diabetes medication (e.g. insulin use). One of the probable additional contributing factors to the increased fall and fracture risks in T2DM is sarcopenia, the age related decline in skeletal muscle mass, quality and function. Although the association between sarcopenia, fall risk, and fracture risk has been studied in the general population, few studies have examined the association between T2DM and muscle tissue and the risks of falls and fractures. This narrative review provides an overview of the literature regarding the multifactorial mechanisms leading to increased fracture risk in patients with T2DM, with a focus on sarcopenia and falls.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)70-77
Number of pages8
JournalMaturitas
Volume109
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2018

Keywords

  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Fracture risk
  • Sarcopenia
  • Falls
  • Bone quality
  • QUANTITATIVE COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY
  • BONE-MINERAL DENSITY
  • SKELETAL-MUSCLE
  • OLDER-ADULTS
  • POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN
  • INSULIN-RESISTANCE
  • OSTEOSARCOPENIC OBESITY
  • NONENZYMATIC GLYCATION
  • FRAGILITY FRACTURES
  • PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY

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