The Retrospective Pre-Post: A Practical Method to Evaluate Learning from an Educational Program

Farhan Bhanji*, Ronald Gottesman, Willem de Grave, Yvonne Steinert, Laura R. Winer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objectives: Program evaluation remains a critical but underutilized step in medical education. This study compared traditional and retrospective prepost self-assessment methods to objective learning measures to assess which correlated better to actual learning. Methods: Forty-seven medical students participated in a 4-hour pediatric resuscitation course. They completed pre and post self-assessments on pediatric resuscitation and two distracter topics. Postcourse, students also retrospectively rated their understanding as it was precourse (the retrospective pre instrument). Changes in traditional and retrospective pre- to postcourse self-assessment measures were compared to an objectives-based multiple-choice exam. Results: The traditional pre to post self-assessment means showed an increase from 1.9 of 5 to 3.7 of 5 (p <0.001); the retrospective pre to post scores also increased from 1.9 of 5 to 3.7 of 5 (p <0.001). Although the group means were the same, individual participants demonstrated a response shift by either increasing or decreasing their traditional pre to retrospective pre scores. Scores on the 22-item objective multiple choice test also increased, from a median score of 13.0 to 18.0 (p <0.001). There was no correlation between the change in self-assessments and objective measures as demonstrated by a Spearman correlation of -0.02 and -0.13 for the traditional and retrospective prepost methods, respectively. Students reported fewer changes on the two distracters using the retrospective prepost versus the traditional method (11 vs. 29). Conclusions: Students were able to accurately identify, but not quantify, learning using either traditional or retrospective prepost self-assessment measures. Retrospective prepost self-assessment was more accurate in excluding perceived change in understanding of subject matter that was not taught.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-194
JournalAcademic Emergency Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012


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