The Renin-Angiotensin system in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes

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Abstract

Increased activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been related to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Most randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that RAS blockade reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes, which has been explained by improved insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. In this review, an overview of the mechanisms that may underlie the association between the RAS and type 2 diabetes will be provided, with focus on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue function. This will include discussion of several human studies performed in our laboratory to investigate the metabolic and hemodynamic effects of the RAS, combining in vivo measurements of whole-body and tissue metabolism with molecular and immunohistochemical approaches. Available data suggest that the detrimental effects of the RAS on insulin secretion are mediated by a reduction in pancreatic blood flow and induction of islet fibrosis, oxidative stress as well as inflammation, whereas both impaired skeletal muscle function and adipose tissue dysfunction may underlie RAS-induced insulin resistance. Thus, although future studies in humans are warranted, current evidence supports that targeting the RAS in intervention studies may improve metabolic and cardiovascular function in conditions of insulin resistance like obesity and type 2 diabetes. Copyright (c) 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)611-624
Number of pages14
JournalObesity Facts
Volume5
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2012

Keywords

  • Renin-angiotensin system
  • Insulin secretion
  • Insulin resistance
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Adipose tissue
  • HUMAN ADIPOSE-TISSUE
  • BETA-CELL FUNCTION
  • IMPAIRED GLUCOSE-TOLERANCE
  • SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE-RATS
  • DECREASES ADIPOCYTE SIZE
  • OBESE ZUCKER RATS
  • INSULIN-RESISTANCE
  • SKELETAL-MUSCLE
  • BLOOD-FLOW
  • II TYPE-1

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