Assessment for learning (afl) is believed to create a rich learning environment in which students develop their cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Monitoring student growth and providing scaffolds that shed light on the next step in the learning process are hypothesized to be essential elements of afl that enhance cognitive and metacognitive strategies. However, empirical evidence for the relation between afl and students' strategy use is scarce. Aimthis study investigates the relation between afl and elementary school students' use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Samplethe sample comprised 528 grade four to six students (9- to 12-year-olds) from seven dutch elementary schools. Methodsstudents' perceptions of afl and their cognitive and metacognitive strategy use were measured by means of questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relations among the variables. Resultsthe results reveal that monitoring activities that provide students an understanding of where they are in their learning process predict students' task orientation and planning. Scaffolding activities that support students in taking the next step in their learning are positively related to the use of both surface and deep-level learning strategies and the extent to which they evaluate their learning process after performing tasks. Conclusionsthe results underline the importance of assessment practices in ceding responsibility to students in taking control of their own learning.