The regulation of pharmacists in belgium and the netherlands is analysed in order to test the rent-seeking hypothesis put forward in the private interest literature. Both the self-regulation issued by the professional bodies and public regulations are examined. It appears that many regulations in both countries either restrict the entry into the profession or restrict competition within the profession. A qualitative comparative analysis of these regulations in both countries is presented as well as some empirical findings. The economic analysis and the empirical data seem to give some support to the rent-seeking hypothesis.