Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. Besides traditional risk factors, disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism and inflammation are thought to be responsible for the increased risk of death. In the last years C-reactive protein (CRP) has gained a lot of attention in the general population, especially with regard to its link with atherosclerosis. Although several studies suggest that CRP may be useful as a parameter in predicting future cardiovascular events in both the general population and in patients with end-stage renal disease, there is doubt about the clinical evidence of this assumption. A statistical association between CRP and cardiovascular disease was observed in various studies, but the predictive power of this association is markedly diminished when adjusted for other risk factors. The relative contributions of CRP as a marker, as a causative agent, or as a consequence of atherosclerotic vascular disease are unclear, both in the general population and in the dialysis population. The CRP levels are highly variable and influenced by intercurrent events in dialysis patients. In dialysis patients, it is possible to reduce the CRP levels by statins, although these agents do not reduce the cardiovascular mortality in diabetic dialysis patients.