The Power of Flash Mob Research Conducting a Nationwide Observational Clinical Study on Capillary Refill Time in a Single Day

Jelmer Alsma*, Jan L. C. M. van Saase, Prabath W. B. Nanayakkara, W. E. M. Ineke Schouten, Anique Baten, Martijn P. Bauer, Frits Holleman, Jack J. M. Ligtenberg, Patricia M. Stassen, Karin H. A. H. Kaasjager, Harm R. Haak, Frank H. Bosch, Stephanie C. E. Schuit, Famous Study Grp

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


BACKGROUND: Capillary refill time (CRT) is a clinical test used to evaluate the circulatory status of patients; various methods are available to assess CRT. Conventional clinical research often demands large numbers of patients, making it costly, labor-intensive, and time-consuming. We studied the interobserver agreement on CRT in a nationwide study by using a novel method of research called flash mob research (FMR).

METHODS: Physicians in the Netherlands were recruited by using word-of-mouth referrals, conventional media, and social media to participate in a nationwide, single-day, "nineto-five," multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study to evaluate CRT. Patients aged >= 18 years presenting to the ED or who were hospitalized were eligible for inclusion. CRT was measured independently (by two investigators) at the patient's sternum and distal phalanx after application of pressure for 5 s (5s) and 15 s (15s).

RESULTS: On October 29, 2014, a total of 458 investigators in 38 Dutch hospitals enrolled 1,734 patients. The mean CRT measured at the distal phalanx were 2.3 s (5s, SD1.1) and 2.4 s (15s, SD1.3). The mean CRT measured at the sternum was 2.6 s (5s, SD1.1) and 2.7 s (15s, SD1.1). Interobserver agreement was higher for the distal phalanx (k value, 0.40) than for the sternum (k value, 0.30).

CONCLUSIONS: Interobserver agreement on CRT is, at best, moderate. CRT measured at the distal phalanx yielded higher interobserver agreement compared with sternal CRT measurements. FMR proved a valuable instrument to investigate a relatively simple clinical question in an inexpensive, quick, and reliable manner.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1106-1113
Number of pages8
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2017


  • biomedical research
  • capillary refill time
  • data collection
  • physiology

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