OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical presentation and long-term follow-up of a large cohort of patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. STUDY DESIGN: A nationwide, retrospective analysis of clinical presentation and follow-up in 155 Dutch patients with MCAD deficiency. RESULTS: Most patients presented between 3 months and 5.1 years of age; 13% had symptoms as neonates not exclusively related to breast-feeding. An acute presentation before the diagnosis was made resulted in a mortality of 22% (25/114), whereas 21% (19/89) developed disabilities after the diagnosis. On follow-up, a total of 44 patients reported fatigue (35%; 28/80), muscle pain (31%; 25/80), and/or reduced exercise tolerance (39%; 31/80). Cardiac evaluation in 11 adult patients revealed no abnormalities in cardiac function explaining these complaints. Children with MCAD deficiency readily become overweight. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality and morbidity were high in undiagnosed children with MCAD deficiency; establishment of the diagnosis significantly improves outcome. Strikingly, after the diagnosis and initiation of treatment, overweight and chronic complaints (fatigue, muscle pain, and reduced exercise tolerance) were prominent.
Derks, T. G., Reijngoud, D. J., Waterham, H. R., Gerver, W. J., van den Berg, M. P., Sauer, P. J., & Smit, G. P. (2006). The natural history of medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in the Netherlands: Clinical presentation and outcome. Journal of Pediatrics, 148(5), 665-670. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.12.028