The interaction of the top management team (TMT) and middle managers (MMs) is central to effective strategy formulation and implementation, but researchers have remained notably silent on the actual nature of this interaction. Here we specify the functions of the TMT-MM interface and formulate a series of propositions linking TMT and MMs' interaction processes, role behaviors, and trust to strategic decision quality and implementation quality. Studying the interface provides a new avenue for both TMT and MM research and enhances insight into the impact of TMTs on organizational performance.
Raes, A., Heijltjes, M. G., Glunk, U., & Roe, R. A. (2011). The interface of top management team and middle managers: A process model. Academy of Management Review, 36(1), 102-126. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2009.0088