We use survey data for up to 292 universities in 17 European countries to examine the influence of the employment share in knowledge-intensive services (KIS), location in a metropolitan region, and competition from other universities and research institutes in the same region on three measures of university knowledge transfer outcomes: the number of research agreements, licensing, and the number of start-ups. The results show that the KIS employment share has a positive correlation with the number of start-ups, while the location in a metropolitan region is positively correlated with the number of research agreements. Competition from quality-weighted universities in the same region as the focal university decreases the number of research and licensing agreements, although the highest-ranked 13.4% of universities benefit from the regional co-location of other high-quality universities for license income. The number of research institutes in the same region is unrelated to the number of research agreements, licenses and start-ups, but has a positive effect on license income. These results suggest that universities compete with top-ranked universities for regional demand for knowledge.
- University-industry knowledge transfer
- inter-university competition
- TECHNOLOGY-TRANSFER OFFICES
- EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES