The Glyoxalase System in Age-Related Diseases: Nutritional Intervention as Anti-Ageing Strategy

G. Aragones, S. Rowan, S.G. Francisco, E.A. Whitcomb, W.X. Yang, G. Perini-Villanueva, C.G. Schalkwijk, A. Taylor*, E. Bejarano*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal(Systematic) Review article peer-review

2 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

The glyoxalase system is critical for the detoxification of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). AGEs are toxic compounds resulting from the non-enzymatic modification of biomolecules by sugars or their metabolites through a process called glycation. AGEs have adverse effects on many tissues, playing a pathogenic role in the progression of molecular and cellular aging. Due to the age-related decline in different anti-AGE mechanisms, including detoxifying mechanisms and proteolytic capacities, glycated biomolecules are accumulated during normal aging in our body in a tissue-dependent manner. Viewed in this way, anti-AGE detoxifying systems are proposed as therapeutic targets to fight pathological dysfunction associated with AGE accumulation and cytotoxicity. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge related to the protective mechanisms against glycative stress, with a special emphasis on the glyoxalase system as the primary mechanism for detoxifying the reactive intermediates of glycation. This review focuses on glyoxalase 1 (GLO1), the first enzyme of the glyoxalase system, and the rate-limiting enzyme of this catalytic process. Although GLO1 is ubiquitously expressed, protein levels and activities are regulated in a tissue-dependent manner. We provide a comparative analysis of GLO1 protein in different tissues. Our findings indicate a role for the glyoxalase system in homeostasis in the eye retina, a highly oxygenated tissue with rapid protein turnover. We also describe modulation of the glyoxalase system as a therapeutic target to delay the development of age-related diseases and summarize the literature that describes the current knowledge about nutritional compounds with properties to modulate the glyoxalase system.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1852
Number of pages26
JournalCells
Volume10
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2021

Keywords

  • glycative stress
  • glyoxalase system
  • aging
  • proteotoxicity
  • GLYCATION-END-PRODUCTS
  • UBIQUITIN-PROTEASOME SYSTEM
  • OXIDATIVE STRESS
  • I GENE
  • DIABETIC-NEPHROPATHY
  • ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN
  • CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID
  • ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE
  • INSULIN-RESISTANCE
  • PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS

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