This paper studies the Front End of Eco-Innovation (FEEL), the initial phase of the eco-innovation process. Incorporating environmental concerns at the front-end of innovation is important, as product parameters are still flexible. This paper investigates the FEEL for 42 small and medium sized eco-innovators in the Netherlands by using a survey. The results show that SMEs embrace informal, systematic, and open innovation approaches at the FEEI. Teams appear to be multidisciplinary, and creativity and environmental knowledge are essential. Experimentation played a significant role at the FEEI. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research and implications for managers.
Bocken, N. M. P., Farracho, M., Bosworth, R., & Kemp, R. P. M. (2014). The front-end of eco-innovation for eco-innovative small and medium sized companies. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 31, 43-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jengtecman.2013.10.004