The epigenetics of aging and neurodegeneration

Roy Lardenoije, Artemis Iatrou, Gunter Kenis, Konstantinos Kompotis, Harry W. M. Steinbusch, Diego Mastroeni, Paul Coleman, Cynthia A. Lemere, Patrick R. Hof, Daniel L. A. van den Hove, Bart P. F. Rutten*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

203 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Epigenetics is a quickly growing field encompassing mechanisms regulating gene expression that do not involve changes in the genotype. Epigenetics is of increasing relevance to neuroscience, with epigenetic mechanisms being implicated in brain development and neuronal differentiation, as well as in more dynamic processes related to cognition. Epigenetic regulation covers multiple levels of gene expression; from direct modifications of the DNA and histone tails, regulating the level of transcription, to interactions with messenger RNAs, regulating the level of translation. Importantly, epigenetic dysregulation currently garners much attention as a pivotal player in aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease, where it may mediate interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors, or directly interact with disease-specific pathological factors. We review current knowledge about the major epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and DNA demethylation, chromatin remodeling and noncoding RNAs, as well as the involvement of these mechanisms in normal aging and in the pathophysiology of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, we examine the current state of epigenetics-based therapeutic strategies for these diseases, which either aim to restore the epigenetic homeostasis or skew it to a favorable direction to counter disease pathology. Finally, methodological challenges of epigenetic investigations and future perspectives are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-64
JournalProgress in Neurobiology
Volume131
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2015

Keywords

  • Epigenetics
  • Aging
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Huntington's disease

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