This paper provides a systematic review of studies on the effects of human capital interventions on entrepreneurial performance in industrialized countries. We identify 21 experimental and quasi-experimental studies published before September 2018. These studies examine the effects of business training, formal education, and entrepreneurship education. Their performance outcomes include firm profits, firm size, and entrepreneurial earnings. The main finding across these studies is that these interventions do not have statistically significant effects. Formal education is the only exception, showing positive effects on firm profits and entrepreneurial earnings, yet these effects are small in magnitude. Evidence is inconclusive regarding effect duration. These findings stand in stark contrast to correlational studies, which tend to find large positive correlations between human capital interventions and entrepreneurial performance. We therefore conclude that correlational studies tend to overestimate the benefits of human capital interventions. Moreover, our estimates show that the interventions are associated with moderately low additionality.
- o15 - "Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration"
- j24 - "Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity"
- l26 - Entrepreneurship
- l25 - Firm Performance: Size, Diversification, and Scope
- Causal inference
- Firm performance
- Returns to education
- Systematic review
- ENTERPRISES EVIDENCE
- ECONOMIC RETURN
Hogendoorn, B., Rud, I., Groot, W., & Maassen van den Brink, H. (2019). The Effects of Human Capital Interventions on Entrepreneurial Performance in Industrialized Countries. Journal of Economic Surveys, 33(3), 798-826. https://doi.org/10.1111/joes.12308