Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is suggested to protect mitochondria against aging and lipid-induced damage, possibly via modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here we show that mice overexpressing UCP3 (UCP3Tg) have a blunted age-induced increase in ROS production, assessed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, but only after addition of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Mitochondrial function, assessed by respirometry, on glycolytic substrate was lower in UCP3Tg mice compared to wild types, whereas this tended to be higher on fatty acids. State 4o respiration was higher in UCP3Tg animals. To conclude, UCP3 overexpression leads to increased state 4o respiration and, in presence of 4-HNE, blunts the age-induced increase in ROS production.