The effect of music in gynaecological office procedures on pain, anxiety and satisfaction: a randomized controlled trial

N. Mak*, I. M. A. Reinders, S. A. Slockers, E. H. M. N. Westen, J. W. M. Maas, M. Y. Bongers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Background: Pain can interfere with office procedures in gynaecology. The aim of this study is to measure the positive effect of music in gynaecological office procedures.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial was performed between October 2014 and January 2016. Women scheduled for an office hysteroscopy or colposcopy were eligible for randomization in the music group or control group. Stratification for hysteroscopy and colposcopy took place. The primary outcome is patients' level of pain during the procedure measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes include patients' level of pain after the procedure, anxiety and satisfaction of patient and doctor.

Results: No positive effect of music on patients' perception of pain during the procedure was measured, neither for the hysteroscopy group (57 mm vs. 52 mm) nor for the colposcopy group (32 mm vs. 32 mm). Secondary outcomes were also similar for both groups.

Conclusions: This study showed no positive effect of music on patients' level of pain, anxiety or satisfaction of patient or doctor for office hysteroscopy and colposcopy. We believe a multimodal approach has to be used to decrease patient distress in terms of pain and anxiety, with or without music.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14
Number of pages8
JournalGynecological Surgery
Publication statusPublished - 9 Aug 2017


  • Pain
  • Anxiety
  • Music
  • Office procedures
  • Hysteroscopy
  • Colposcopy

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