Contrary to classical problem-based learning, in guided problem-based learning, the learning goals are predetermined by the instructor-on the basis of a detailed decomposition of the subject matter to be studied-to activate prior knowledge and to structure self-study and subsequent group discussion. This study investigated the effects of classical problem-based learning and guided problem-based learning, for different prior knowledge levels, on perceived value and usefulness of the learning activity and on conceptual understanding of statistics. Participants randomly assigned 110 students to 10 problem-based learning groups, and subsequently, the 10 groups were allocated randomly to classical problem-based learning or guided problem-based learning. The results indicate that guided problem-based learning tends to enhance conceptual understanding of statistics more thanbreak; classical problem-based learning once students have some prior knowledge of the subject. Furthermore, guided problem-based learning tends to increase students' awareness of the value and usefulness of the learning activity.
Leppink, J., Broers, N. J., Imbos, T., van der Vleuten, C. P. M., & Berger, M. P. F. (2014). The effect of guidance in problem-based learning of statistics. Journal of Experimental Education, 82(3), 391-407. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.2013.813365