The Effect of Gender and Gender Pairing on Bargaining: Evidence from an Artefactual Field Experiment

Ben d'Exelle, Christine Gutekunst, Arno Riedl

Research output: Working paper / PreprintDiscussion paper


Men and women negotiate differently, which might create gender inequality in access to resources as well as efficiency losses due to disagreement. We study the role of gender and gender pairing
in bilateral bargaining, using a lab-in-the-filed experiment in which pairs of participants bargain over the division of a fixed amount of resources. We vary the gender composition of the
bargaining pairs as well as the disclosure of the participants’ identities. We find gender differences in earnings, agreement and demands, but only when the identities are disclosed. Women in samegender pairs obtain higher earnings than men and women in mixed-gender pairs. This is the result of the lower likelihood of disagreement among women-only pairs. Women leave more on the bargaining table, conditional on their beliefs, which contributes to the lower disagreement and higher earnings among women-only pairs.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationBonn
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Publication series

SeriesIZA Discussion Paper Series

JEL classifications

  • c90 - Design of Experiments: General
  • j16 - "Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination"
  • o12 - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development


  • bargaining
  • gender
  • gender pairing
  • beliefs
  • experiment

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