Background. Education is aimed at students reaching conceptual understanding of the subject matter, because this leads to better performance and application of knowledge. Conceptual understanding depends on coherent and error-free knowledge structures. The construction of such knowledge structures can only be accomplished through active learning and when new knowledge can be integrated into prior knowledge. Aims. The intervention in this study was directed at both the activation of students as well as the integration of knowledge. Sample. Undergraduate university students from an introductory statistics course, in an authentic problem-based learning (PBL) environment, were randomly assigned to conditions and measurement time points. Method. In the PBL tutorial meetings, half of the tutors guided the discussions of the students in a traditional way. The other half guided the discussions more actively by asking directive and activating questions. To gauge conceptual understanding, the students answered open-ended questions asking them to explain and relate important statistical concepts. Results and conclusions. Results of the quantitative analysis show that providing directive tutor guidance improved understanding. Qualitative data of students' misconceptions seem to support this finding. Long-term retention of the subject matter seemed to be inadequate.
Budé, L. M., van de Wiel, M. W. J., Imbos, T., & Berger, M. P. F. (2011). The effect of directive tutor guidance on students' conceptual understanding of statistics in problem-based learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(2), 309-324. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709910X513933