The effect of different delivery modes of misinformation on false memories in adolescents and adults

D.Y. Irwanda, D. Maulina*, T.H. Sekarmewangi, K.M.H. Putri, Henry Otgaar, Charlotte Bucken

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Web of Science)


The current study examined the effects of different delivery modes of misinformation on false memory creation in adolescents and adults. Forty adolescents (14-15 year olds) and fifty-three adults (over 18) were instructed to watch a video. Following this, half of the participants were given direct-with interaction misinformation, in which misinformation was delivered by the experimenter and participants (co-witnesses) were able to interact before their memory was tested. The other half of the participants were given direct-without interaction misinformation, in which they listened to a narrative read aloud by the experimenter, without interacting. Lastly, all participants completed a memory test. We found that participants in the direct-without interaction group were more likely to report false memories compared to the direct-with interaction group. Furthermore, adolescents endorsed more misinformation details than adults. Our results provide a new perspective about the role of social factors in the occurrence of false memories.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)208-216
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Cognitive Psychology
Issue number2
Early online date26 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - 17 Feb 2022


  • False memories
  • age
  • misinformation
  • direct-with interaction
  • direct-without interaction
  • co-witness discussions

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