The dual nature of the BOLD signal: Responses in visual area hMT plus reflect both input properties and perceptual decision

Teresa Sousa, Joao Duarte, Gabriel N. Costa, Valentin G. Kemper, Ricardo Martins, Rainer Goebel, Miguel Castelo-Branco*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Neuroimaging studies have suggested that hMT+ encodes global motion interpretation, but this contradicts the notion that BOLD activity mainly reflects neuronal input. While measuring fMRI responses at 7 Tesla, we used an ambiguous moving stimulus, yielding the perception of two incoherently moving surfaces—component motion—or only one coherently moving surface—pattern motion, to induce perceptual fluctuations and identify perceptual organization size‐matched domains in hMT+. Then, moving gratings, exactly matching either the direction of component or pattern motion percepts of the ambiguous stimulus, were shown to the participants to investigate whether response properties reflect the input or decision. If hMT+ responses reflect the input, component motion domains (selective to incoherent percept) should show grating direction stimulus‐dependent changes, unlike pattern motion domains (selective to the coherent percept). This hypothesis is based on the known direction‐selective nature of inputs in component motion perceptual domains versus non‐selectivity in pattern motion perceptual domains. The response amplitude of pattern motion domains did not change with grating direction (consistently with their non‐selective input), in contrast to what happened for the component motion domains (consistently with their selective input). However, when we analyzed relative ratio measures they mirrored perceptual interpretation. These findings are consistent with the notion that patterns of BOLD responses reflect both sensory input and perceptual read‐out.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1920-1929
Number of pages10
JournalHuman Brain Mapping
Issue number6
Early online date12 Feb 2021
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2021


  • ambiguous visual motion
  • BOLD mechanisms
  • direction&#8208
  • selective input
  • perceptual bistability


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