The Diagnostic Accuracy of Non-Echo-Planar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Detection of Residual and/or Recurrent Cholesteatoma of the Temporal Bone

M. H. G. Dremmen*, P. A. M. Hofman, J. R. Hof, R. J. Stokroos, A. A. Postma

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Non-EPI DWI is a promising alternative to second-look surgery for the detection of residual and/or recurrent cholesteatoma. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy, expressed as a positive predictive value, of MR imaging for the detection of residual and/or recurrent cholesteatoma in our hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-six MR imaging studies were performed from 2005 to 2010 in patients having previously undergone surgery for cholesteatoma. Pre- and postgadolinium T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and non-EPI DWI sequences were performed and correlated with clinical and intraoperative findings. Twenty-seven patients underwent second-look surgery; 7 were under close clinical follow-up. Twenty-two patients without evidence of cholesteatoma were under regular follow-up (range, 14-44 months). RESULTS: Non-EPI DWI sequences showed increased DW signal intensity in 36 patients. Of those, 27 had second-look surgery, confirming cholesteatoma in 25 patients; in 1 patient, an empyema was diagnosed, and in the other patient, no cholesteatoma was found at surgery. In 2 patients who had not undergone surgery, increased DW signal intensity was accompanied by hyperintense signal intensity on T1-weighted images, consistent with transplanted fat in the postoperative cavity. The positive predictive value for detection of cholesteatoma was 93% (25/27). CONCLUSIONS: Residual and/or recurrent cholesteatomas after primary cholesteatoma surgery can be accurately detected by increased DW signal intensity on non-EPI DWI. However, DWI without conventional sequences increased the risk of misdiagnosis in our patient setting because transplanted fat within the postoperative cavity may show increased DW signal intensity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)439-444
JournalAmerican Journal of Neuroradiology
Volume33
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012

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