The Concept Shifting Test: adult normative data

W. van der Elst*, M.P.J. van Boxtel, G.J.P. van Breukelen, J. Jolles

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The Concept Shifting Test (CST) is a newly developed Trail Making Type test that measures concept shifting and executive functioning. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether CST performance was affected by age, gender, educational level, or handedness and to establish the normal range of test performance. The CST was administered to a large sample (N = 1,794) of cognitively intact adults (age range 24 to 81 years). The results showed that CST performance was superior in women, decreased with age, and increased with level of education. Handedness did not affect CST performance. Normative data that are corrected for the influences of these demographical variables were established with a regression-based normative approach.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)424-432
JournalPsychological Assessment
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2006

Cite this