The Cholesterol-Raising Factor from Coffee Beans, Cafestol, as an Agonist Ligand for the Farnesoid and Pregnane X Receptors

M.L. Ricketts, M.V. Boekschoten, A.J. Kreeft, G.J. Hooiveld, C.J. Moen, M. Muller, R.R. Frants, S. Kasanmoentalib, S.M. Post, H.M.G. Princen, J.G. Porter, M.B. Katan, M.H. Hofker, D.D. Moore

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Abstract

Cafestol, a diterpene present in unfiltered coffee brews such as Scandinavian boiled, Turkish and Cafetiere coffee, is the most potent cholesterol-elevating compound known in the human diet. Several genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis have previously been shown to be targets of cafestol, including CYP7A1, the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid biosynthesis. We have examined the mechanism by which cafestol elevates serum lipid levels. Changes in several lipid parameters were observed in cafestol-treated APOE3Leiden mice, including a significant increase in serum triglyceride levels. Microarray analysis of these mice identified alterations in hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and detoxification, many of which are regulated by the nuclear hormone receptors FXR and PXR. Further studies demonstrate that cafestol is an agonist ligand for FXR and PXR, and that cafestol down-regulates expression of the bile acid homeostatic genes CYP7A1, CYP8B1 and NTCP in the liver of wild type but not FXR null mice. Cafestol did not affect genes known to be up-regulated by FXR in the liver of wild type mice, but did increase expression of the positive FXR-target genes IBABP and FGF15 in the intestine. Since FGF15 has recently been shown to function in an enterohepatic regulatory pathway to repress liver expression of bile acid homeostatic genes, its direct induction in the gut may account for indirect effects of cafestol on liver gene expression. PXR-dependent gene regulation of CYP3A11, and other targets by cafestol was also only seen in the intestine. Using a double FXR/PXR knockout mouse model, we found that both receptors contribute to the cafestol-dependent induction of intestinal FGF15 gene expression. In conclusion, cafestol acts as an agonist ligand for both FXR and PXR and this may contribute to its impact on cholesterol homeostasis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1603-1616
JournalMolecular Endocrinology
Volume21
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2007

Cite this

Ricketts, M. L., Boekschoten, M. V., Kreeft, A. J., Hooiveld, G. J., Moen, C. J., Muller, M., Frants, R. R., Kasanmoentalib, S., Post, S. M., Princen, H. M. G., Porter, J. G., Katan, M. B., Hofker, M. H., & Moore, D. D. (2007). The Cholesterol-Raising Factor from Coffee Beans, Cafestol, as an Agonist Ligand for the Farnesoid and Pregnane X Receptors. Molecular Endocrinology, 21(7), 1603-1616. https://doi.org/10.1210/me.2007-0133