The Characteristics of Patients Frequently Tested and Repeatedly Infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Julien Wijers*, Christian Hoebe, Nicole Dukers-Muijrers, Petra Wolffs, Genevieve van Liere

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


We assessed whether patients repeatedly infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) were different compared to patients repeatedly tested negative, to obtain insight into the characteristics of patients frequently tested and infected with NG. All patients tested for NG (n = 16,662) between January 2011 and July 2018 were included. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed for the outcomes "repeat NG infections" and "once NG positive and not retested" versus patients "repeatedly tested NG negative". Of the individuals tested for NG, 0.2% (40/16,662) had repeat (>= 2) NG infections, and accounted for 23% of all diagnosed NG infections. STI clinic patients, men (mostly men who have sex with men (MSM)), patients aged >= 25 years, and patients co-infected with HIV or Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) more often had repeat NG infections. The number of patients not retested after their initial NG diagnosis was 29.9% (92/308). Men (mostly MSM), HIV positive patients, and patients notified for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were more often NG positive and not retested. Concluding, only 40 patients tested for NG accounted for one in four diagnosed NG infections. However, re-infections are likely to be missed among MSM and HIV positive patients, as they were mainly not retested after NG infection. It remains important to test and re-test for NG, especially in MSM, in order to halt transmission.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1495
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 26 Feb 2020


  • gonorrhoeae
  • retesting
  • repeat infection
  • sexually transmitted infections
  • MEN

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