The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral determinants of the initiation of breast-feeding at birth. The prospective cohort study used the attitude, social influence, self-efficacy (ASE) model in 373 pregnant women in five child health care centers. Prenatally, 72% of the women had the intention to breast-feed, and 73% actually started with breast-feeding at birth. Mothers who initiated breast-feeding differed in almost all the attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy determinants from others who initiated formula feeding. Intention was a very strong predictor of the initiation of breast-feeding. The components of the ASE model predicted the initiation of breast-feeding. Hence, the results may be used to tailor future interventions aimed at promoting breast-feeding.